Florian Karsten Typefaces

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Variable Static
Weight
500
Italic
0
Leading
1.00
Tracking
0.000 %
AA Aa
AA Aa
Size
3.20 vw
Leading
1.05
Tracking
-0.020 %
Mariner 10 was the first spacecraft to make use of an interplanetary gravitational slingshot maneuver, using Venus to bend its flight path and bring its perihelion down to the level of Mercury's orbit. This maneuver, inspired by the orbital mechanics calculations of the Italian scientist Giuseppe Colombo, put the spacecraft into an orbit that repeatedly brought it back to Mercury. Mariner 10 used the solar radiation pressure on its solar panels and its high-gain antenna as a means of attitude control during flight, the first spacecraft to use active solar pressure control. The components on Mariner 10 can be categorized into four groups based on their common function. The solar panels, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, and the computer kept the spacecraft operating properly during the flight. The navigational system, including the hydrazine rocket, would keep Mariner 10 on track to Venus and Mercury. Several scientific instruments would collect data at the two planets. Finally, the antennas would transmit this data to the Deep Space Network back on Earth, as well as receive commands from Mission Control. Mariner 10's various components and scientific instruments were attached to a central hub, which was roughly the shape of an octagonal prism. The hub stored the spacecraft's internal electronics. The Mariner 10 spacecraft was manufactured by Boeing. NASA set a strict limit of US$98 million for Mariner 10's total cost, which marked the first time the agency subjected a mission to an inflexible budget constraint. No overruns would be tolerated, so mission planners carefully considered cost efficiency when designing the spacecraft's instruments. Cost control was primarily accomplished by executing contract work closer to the launch date than was recommended by normal mission schedules, as reducing the length of available work time increased cost efficiency. Despite the rushed schedule, very few deadlines were missed. The mission ended up about US$1 million under budget.
AA Aa
Size
1.40 vw
Leading
1.37
Tracking
0.000 %
Een van de redenen voor het gebruik van de naam Pioneer lag in het feit dat deze vlucht bedoeld was om de weg te effenen voor zwaardere verkenners. De constructeurs wisten niet goed wat de ideale vormgeving voor zo'n sonde moest zijn, doordat er tot die tijd slechts zeer weinig bekend was over de stralingsgordels van de buitenplaneten en de intensiteit van micrometeorieten. De Pioneer 10 en 11 moesten hieromtrent duidelijkheid verschaffen. Beide sondes voerden camera's mee, maar het maken van opnames was niet het belangrijkste missiedoel. De vaartuigen beschikten over sensors die magnetische velden, geladen deeltjes en samenstelling en temperatuur van Jupiter vastlegden. De verzonden foto's waren een bijproduct van metingen door een polarimeter, ontworpen door de Nederlandse hoogleraar Tom Gehrels van de Universiteit van Arizona. Overigens zouden verreweg de meeste toekomstige plannen vroegtijdig sneuvelen op de tekentafel: door voortdurende bezuinigingen moest NASA in de jaren na Pioneer 10 keuzes maken. Hun voortdurend door uitstel en budgetoverschrijdingen geplaagde paradepaardje Space Shuttle slokte het leeuwendeel van de beschikbare fondsen op en na Voyager 1 en 2 maakte NASA noodgedwongen pas op de plaats. Voor communicatie met de vluchtleiding op Aarde beschikte de sonde over drie antennes: een hooggevoelige schotelantenne met een diepte van 46 cm en een diameter van 2,74 m en daarnaast een middelgevoelige antenne op de schotelantenne en een laaggevoelige antenne die 76 cm van het deel met de vluchtinstrumenten uitstak en onder de schotelantenne was bevestigd. Van de twee ontvangers was er een aangesloten op zowel de laag- als middelgevoelige antenne, de andere was gereserveerd voor de schotelantenne. De vluchtleiding kon deze omwisselen. Twee zenders met versterkers van 8 watt op 2292 MHz zonden gegevens naar de Aarde, inkomende signalen kwamen binnen op 2110 MHz. De bitrate bedroeg op weg naar Jupiter 2048 bps en aan het einde van de missie slechts 16 bps. Op 750 miljoen km doet een radiosignaal er zo'n 40 minuten over om deze afstand te overbruggen.
AA Aa
Size
7.75 vw
Leading
1.05
Tracking
-0.035 %
En effet, Voyager 2 devait tourner sur elle-même à 360° afin de prendre diverses mesures.
AA Aa
Size
1.90 vw
Leading
1.35
Tracking
-0.005 %
O objetivo é alcançar resultados de qualidade através de várias missões pequenas, usando menos recursos e menos tempo. Os objetos do programa são por conseguinte variados, explorando os planetas, suas luas e pequenos corpos como cometas e asteroides. Cada experimento individual é coordenado por um investigador principal, que desenvolve os objetivos científicos e os instrumentos necessários. O IP é responsável por assegurar que o custo, cronograma e os objetivos de desempenho sejam cumpridos. O programa procura manter um alto desempenho a baixo custo, no máximo 425 milhões de dólares. Nisto deve ser incluído o custo de toda a missão: concepção, desenvolvimento, veículos de lançamento, instrumentos e aparelhos espaciais, lançamento, operações de missão, análise de dados, educação e divulgação pública. O tempo de desenvolvimento da missão do começo ao lançamento pode ser no máximo 36 meses, lançando-se em tese uma missão a cada 12 a 24 meses. Discovery já lançou várias sondas, entre elas a NEAR Shoemaker, a Lunar Prospector, o Mars Pathfinder, a Deep Impact, a Stardust (sonda espacial) e a Genesis (sonda espacial). Ainda estão em andamento as missões Messenger, Dawn e Kepler. O Mars Pathfinder, mais tarde rebatizado como Carl Sagan Memorial Station, foi lançado no dia 4 de dezembro de 1996, apenas um mês após o lançamento do Mars Global Surveyor. A bordo do lander (aterrissador) seguia um pequeno rover (veículo explorador) chamado Sojourner, que executou muitas experiências na superfície marciana. Foi o segundo projeto do Programa Discovery. Esta missão foi a mais importante desde o programa Viking, e também a primeira missão bem-sucedida a enviar um rover a outro planeta. Para além dos objetivos científicos, a missão Mars Pathfinder foi também um teste para várias novas tecnologias, tais como o airbag para pouso e o contorno automatizado de obstáculos, ambos mais tarde aproveitados pelo Mars Exploration Rover.
AA Aa
Size
2.15 vw
Leading
1.22
Tracking
-0.010 %
Rosetta was launched on 2 March 2004 from the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, on an Ariane 5 rocket and reached Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 7 May 2014. It performed a series of manoeuvres to enter orbit between then and 6 August 2014, when it became the first spacecraft to orbit a comet. (Previous missions had conducted successful flybys of seven other comets.) It was one of ESA's Horizon 2000 cornerstone missions. The spacecraft consisted of the Rosetta orbiter, which featured 12 instruments, and the Philae lander, with nine additional instruments. The Rosetta mission orbited Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko for 17 months and was designed to complete the most detailed study of a comet ever attempted. The spacecraft was controlled from the European Space Operations Centre, in Darmstadt, Germany. The planning for the operation of the scientific payload, together with the data retrieval, calibration, archiving and distribution, was performed from the European Space Astronomy Centre, in Villanueva de la Cañada, near Madrid, Spain. It has been estimated that in the decade preceding 2014, some 2,000 people assisted in the mission in some capacity. In 2007, Rosetta made a Mars gravity assist (flyby) on its way to Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The spacecraft also performed two asteroid flybys. The craft completed its flyby of asteroid 2867 Šteins in September 2008 and of 21 Lutetia in July 2010. Later, on 20 January 2014, Rosetta was taken out of a 31-month hibernation mode as it approached Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Rosetta's Philae lander successfully made the first soft landing on a comet nucleus when it touched down on Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. On 5 September 2016, ESA announced that the lander was discovered by the narrow-angle camera aboard Rosetta as the orbiter made a low, 2.7 km (1.7 mi) pass over the comet. The lander sits on its side wedged into a dark crevice of the comet, explaining the lack of electrical power to establish proper communication with the orbiter.
AA Aa
Size
2.95 vw
Leading
1.20
Tracking
-0.020 %
Yaklaşık 1969'da Pioneer ve onun kardeşi Pioneer 11 isimlerini yaşatmak için dizayn edildiler; kaşifler ilk defa ikisinden de bilgi toplama ve astroit kuşağındaki ve Jupiter'deki koşulların raporunu elde etmeyi tasarlıyordu. Pioneer 10, TRW yöntemiyle dizayn edildi. Hafifti, sadece 260 kg 30 ve 27 kg aletleri ve yakıtı sırasıyla. Voyager'lar benzeri olup radyo izotop termoelektrik jeneratörleri ile güçlendirilmiştir. Plütonyum-238 ihtiva eder, fırlatılışta 155W sağlar. RTG iyi bir şekilde vücudunun dışına monte edilmiş olup radyasyonun uzay aracı aletlerini karıştırmasını önler. Pioneer, 10 Aralık 1973'te Jüpiter ile karşılaşan ilk uzay aracı oldu. Uzay aracı daha sonra kayda değer bilimsel araştırmalar yaptı. Güneş Sistemi'nin dış bölgesinde 31 Mart 1997'de görevi bitene kadar. Kardeşi Pioneer 10 ve Pioneer 11 uzay sondaları üzerlerinde insanlığın mesajını içeren bir tabla taşımaktadır. Her iki sondadaki Jüpiter uçuşunu tasvir eden tablalar birbirinin aynıdır ancak Pioneer 11'in Satürn'e doğru yaptığı dönüş sonradan planlandığı için üzerindeki tablayı geçersiz kılmıştır. Eğer sonda sonsuz yolculuğu boyunca dünya dışı zeki varlıklarla karşılaşırsa aracın üzerindeki levha insanlık hakkında bilgi sağlamış olacak. Tabla, bir adam ve kadın tasvirinin yanı sıra Hidrojen atomunun bağ yapısını ve güneş ile dünyaya en yakın Pulsar yıldızlarını da baz alarak çizilen Güneş sistemi'nin galaksimizdeki koordinatı gösteren bir çizim içeriyor.

FK Grotesk Neue is a down-to-earth sans-serif typeface inspired by swiss typography titans Helvetica and Univers.

Despite clear references to the iconic shapes of the flowing lowercase “a” or the uppercase “R”, FK Grotesk Neue represents a contemporary, more mechanic and rigid approach to the neo-grotesque genre. Lower contrast, rather geometric outlines and wider proportions (courtesy of FK Grotesk) make the typeface a unique addition to the large group of common-looking utilitarian typefaces.

FK Grotesk Neue fully utilises OpenType features, including several stylistic alternates, thin punctuation set and wide range of numerals variants. FK Grotesk Neue supports Latin Extended-A character set (i.e. Western European, Central European and Southeastern European languages) as well as Vietnamese language. For complete specs see typeface specimen.

  • Designer

    Florian Karsten

  • Release date

    May 2020

  • Version

    1.1.5 (March 2021)

  • Formats

    Static (OTF, TTF, WOFF, WOFF2), Variable (TTF, WOFF, WOFF2)

  • Glyphs

    731

  • OpenType features

    Standard Ligatures, Case Sensitive Forms, Fractions, Numerators, Denominators, Scientific Inferiors, Superscript, Subscript, Oldstyle Figures, Lining Figures, Proportional Figures, Tabular Figures, Slashed Zero, Stylistic Sets (SS01–SS05)

  • Language support

    Afrikaans, Albanian, Asturian, Azerbaijani, Basque, Bemba, Bosnian, Breton, Catalan, Cornish, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Estonian, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino, Finnish, French, Frisian, Friulian, Galician, Ganda, German, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Kinyarwanda, Klingon, Latvian, Lithuanian, Luxembourgish, Makhuwa, Maltese, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh, Sango, Scottish Gaelic, Serbian, Shona, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish, Swiss German, Turkish, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Welsh, Zarma, Zulu

  • Licensing

    A basic license purchased via this website combines desktop and web license and covers installation on a given number of workstations within one organisation and allows you to self-host webfont files for a single domain with no time limitation for a given number of unique visitors per month. For more information about other licensing options, please check FAQ or get in touch.

Buy FK Grotesk Neue

Basic desktop + web license (up to 3 CPU, single domain up to 10k visitors/month)
For more information about other licensing options please check FAQ or get in touch.

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