Florian Karsten Typefaces

Purchase Free Trials
Variable Static
Weight
500
Italic
0
Mono
0
Leading
1.00
Tracking
-0.025 %
AA Aa
Ligatures Case forms Tabular figures Oldstyle figures Slashed zero SS01 (alternate set) SS08 (thin punctuation) MORE
AA Aa
Size
2.20 vw
Leading
1.28
Tracking
0.000 %
Le système de contrôle d'attitude de la sonde a une défaillance en cours de mission. Les ingénieurs décident alors d'utiliser la pression des photons sur les panneaux solaires pour maintenir l'orientation de la sonde en limitant ainsi la quantité de carburant qui est nécessaire pour permettre aux propulseurs d'effectuer les corrections d'orientation nécessaires. À l'origine, Mariner 10 doit survoler Vénus et étudier son atmosphère (composition, structure, pression) et ses nuages, mais lors de la planification de sa trajectoire, les ingénieurs de la NASA se rendent compte qu'avec quelques ajustements, la sonde peut atteindre Mercure. Mariner 10 est le septième lancement réussi du programme Mariner. Le véhicule spatial vole trois fois vers Mercure sur une orbite héliocentrique rétrograde et restitue des images et des données sur la planète. Mariner 10 renvoie les toutes premières images en gros plan de Vénus et de Mercure. Les principaux objectifs scientifiques de la mission sont de mesurer les caractéristiques de l’environnement, de l’atmosphère, de la surface et du centre de la planète Mercure et de mener des recherches similaires sur Vénus. Les objectifs secondaires sont de réaliser des expériences dans le milieu interplanétaire et d'acquérir de l'expérience dans le cadre d'une mission d'assistance gravitationnelle sur deux planètes.
AA Aa
Size
3.75 vw
Leading
1.15
Tracking
0.000 %
Columbia was named after the American sloop Columbia Rediviva which, from 1787 to 1793, under the command of Captain Robert Gray, explored the US Pacific Northwest and became the first American vessel to circumnavigate the globe. It is also named after the command module of Apollo 11, the first crewed landing on another celestial body. Columbia was also the female symbol of the United States. After construction, the orbiter arrived at Kennedy Space Center on March 25, 1979, to prepare for its first launch. Columbia was originally scheduled to lift off in late 1979, however the launch date was delayed by problems with both the RS-25 engine, as well as the thermal protection system. The first flight of Columbia was commanded by John Young, a veteran from the Gemini and Apollo programs who was the ninth person to walk on the Moon in 1972, and piloted by Robert Crippen, a rookie astronaut originally selected to fly on the military's Manned Orbital Laboratory spacecraft, but transferred to NASA after its cancellation, and served as a support crew member for the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions. Columbia spent 610 days in the Orbiter Processing Facility, another 35 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building, and 105 days on Pad 39A before finally lifting off. It was successfully launched on April 12, 1981, the 20th anniversary of the first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), and returned on April 14, 1981, after orbiting the Earth 36 times, landing on the dry lakebed runway at Edwards Air Force Base in California. It then undertook three further research missions to test its technical characteristics and performance. Its first operational mission, with a four-man crew, launched on November 11, 1982. At this point Columbia was joined by Challenger, which flew the next three shuttle missions, while Columbia underwent modifications for the first Spacelab mission. In 1983, Columbia, under the command of John Young on what was his sixth spaceflight, undertook its second operational mission, in which the Spacelab science laboratory and a six-person crew was carried, including the first non-American astronaut on a space shuttle, Ulf Merbold. After the flight, it spent 18 months at the Rockwell Palmdale facility beginning in January 1984, undergoing modifications that removed the Orbiter Flight Test hardware and updating it to similar specifications as those of its sister orbiters.
AA Aa
Size
1.60 vw
Leading
1.40
Tracking
0.010 %
O objetivo é alcançar resultados de qualidade através de várias missões pequenas, usando menos recursos e menos tempo. Os objetos do programa são por conseguinte variados, explorando os planetas, suas luas e pequenos corpos como cometas e asteroides. Cada experimento individual é coordenado por um investigador principal, que desenvolve os objetivos científicos e os instrumentos necessários. O IP é responsável por assegurar que o custo, cronograma e os objetivos de desempenho sejam cumpridos. O programa procura manter um alto desempenho a baixo custo, no máximo 425 milhões de dólares. Nisto deve ser incluído o custo de toda a missão: concepção, desenvolvimento, veículos de lançamento, instrumentos e aparelhos espaciais, lançamento, operações de missão, análise de dados, educação e divulgação pública. O tempo de desenvolvimento da missão do começo ao lançamento pode ser no máximo 36 meses, lançando-se em tese uma missão a cada 12 a 24 meses. Discovery já lançou várias sondas, entre elas a NEAR Shoemaker, a Lunar Prospector, o Mars Pathfinder, a Deep Impact, a Stardust (sonda espacial) e a Genesis (sonda espacial). Ainda estão em andamento as missões Messenger, Dawn e Kepler. O Mars Pathfinder, mais tarde rebatizado como Carl Sagan Memorial Station, foi lançado no dia 4 de dezembro de 1996, apenas um mês após o lançamento do Mars Global Surveyor. A bordo do lander (aterrissador) seguia um pequeno rover (veículo explorador) chamado Sojourner, que executou muitas experiências na superfície marciana. Foi o segundo projeto do Programa Discovery. Esta missão foi a mais importante desde o programa Viking, e também a primeira missão bem-sucedida a enviar um rover a outro planeta. Para além dos objetivos científicos, a missão Mars Pathfinder foi também um teste para várias novas tecnologias, tais como o airbag para pouso e o contorno automatizado de obstáculos, ambos mais tarde aproveitados pelo Mars Exploration Rover.
AA Aa
Size
2.90 vw
Leading
1.25
Tracking
-0.010 %
O programa Voyager consiste de um par de sondas, a Voyager 1 e a Voyager 2. Elas foram lançadas em 1977 aproveitando um alinhamento planetário favorável. Apesar de terem sido oficialmente planejadas para estudar apenas Júpiter e Saturno, as duas sondas foram capazes de continuar sua missão no sistema solar exterior. Ambas alcançaram a velocidade de escape do sistema solar e nunca mais voltarão, e ambas, ainda operacionais, vêm reunindo grandes quantidades de dados sobre os gigantes gasosos do sistema solar, dos quais pouco era conhecido anteriormente. Em 13 de dezembro de 2010, depois de meses à espera da confirmação dos dados, a NASA anunciou que a Voyager 1, viajando a uma velocidade de 17 km/s, havia em junho deste ano alcançado a zona de heliopausa, tornando-se o primeiro artefato humano a chegar à fronteira do Sistema Solar. No dia 12 de Setembro de 2013 a NASA confirmou que a Voyager 1 deixou portanto o Sistema Solar. O programa Viking consistiu de um par de sondas espaciais enviadas a Marte, a Viking 1 e a Viking 2. Cada veículo era composto de duas partes principais, uma projetada para fotografar a superfície a partir de órbita, e outra para estudar o planeta na superfície. A Viking 1 foi lançada em 20 de agosto, e a Viking 2, no dia 9 de setembro de 1975, ambas através de foguetes Titan III-E com estágios superiores Centaur. Os orbitadores, baseados na Mariner 9, foram criados na forma de um octágono de aproximadamente 2,5 m de diâmetro e massa total de lançamento de 2 328 kg, dos quais 1 445 kg eram carburante e gás de controle de altitude. Os objetivos principais dos orbitadores Viking foram o transporte das sondas de superfície a Marte, a realização do reconhecimento de locais de possível pouso, a atuação como ponte de comunicação para as sondas de superfície e a realização de suas próprias investigações científicas. Os landers (veículos de solo) pesavam cerca de 650 kg, incluindo combustível e equipamentos para estudos biológicos, químicos, geológicos, meteorológicos e outros, além de enviarem mais de 57 mil fotografias da superfície marciana.
AA Aa
Size
8 vw
Leading
0.95
Tracking
-0.040 %
Rosetta
Voyager 2
AA Aa
Size
1.80 vw
Leading
1.40
Tracking
0.000 %
O Telescópio Espacial Hubble é um telescópio que foi levado para uma órbita baixa por um ônibus espacial em abril de 1990. Recebeu seu nome em honra ao astrônomo Edwin Hubble. Apesar de não ser o primeiro telescópio espacial, o Hubble é um dos maiores e mais versáteis, e é conhecido ao mesmo tempo como uma ferramenta fundamental de pesquisa e como uma espécie de relações públicas para a divulgação da astronomia. O Hubble foi construído pela NASA e é um dos grandes observatórios espaciais, juntamente com o Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, o Chandra X-ray Observatory e o Spitzer Space Telescope. O Hubble foi criado com um orçamento relativamente baixo de 2 bilhões de dólares e tem funcionado desde 1990, encantando cientistas e o público. Algumas de suas imagens, obtidas com o inovador Hubble Deep Field, tornaram-se famosas. A sonda Magellan, enviada ao planeta Vênus, foi a primeira das três sondas de espaço profundo a ser lançada no Space Shuttle e a primeira nave espacial a utilizar técnicas de aerofrenagem para reduzir a sua órbita. A Magellan criou o primeiro (e atualmente o melhor) mapeamento em alta resolução com radar da superfície do planeta, equiparando-se a outros mapeamentos planetários em fotografia convencional. Missões anteriores para Vênus tinham produzido imagens de baixa resolução, identificando somente formações de dimensões continentais.
AA Aa
Size
1.60 vw
Leading
1.40
Tracking
-0.005 %
Dzięki wykorzystaniu manewrów asysty grawitacyjnej podczas mijania planet, czas przelotu do Neptuna lub Plutona zostałby przy tym skrócony o około 20 lat w stosunku do lotu bezpośredniego. NASA początkowo planowała zrealizować projekt Grand Tour (Wielka Wyprawa), który przewidywał skonstruowanie czterech sond. Pierwsze dwie sondy wystrzelone w 1977 roku przeleciałyby kolejno obok Jowisza, Saturna i Plutona. Druga para sond wystrzelona w 1979 roku zbliżyłaby się do Jowisza, Urana i Neptuna. Jednak koszt takiej misji, wynoszący około miliarda dolarów, przerósł ówczesne możliwości NASA. Nie zaniechano jednak badania zewnętrznych planet. Skromniejszy program zaczęto realizować w 1972 roku. Początkowo miał on być kontynuacją programu Mariner (loty 11 i 12, określane też jako program Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977). W marcu 1977 roku nazwę zmieniono na program Voyager. Celem misji miał być Jowisz i Saturn, jednak zachowano możliwość skierowania jednej z sond do wszystkich czterech planet olbrzymów. Sondy zostały zbudowane w Jet Propulsion Laboratory w Pasadenie. Do każdej z nich został dołączony Voyager Golden Record, na którym zapisane są pozdrowienia wypowiadane w 55 językach, muzyka oraz dźwięki i obrazy przedstawiające różnorodność życia i kultury na Ziemi.
AA Aa
Size
6 vw
Leading
1.00
Tracking
-0.015 %
Construction began on Columbia in 1975 at Rockwell International's principal assembly facility in Palmdale, California, a suburb of Los Angeles
AA Aa
Size
1.90 vw
Leading
1.35
Tracking
0.000 %
Le système de contrôle d'attitude de la sonde a une défaillance en cours de mission. Les ingénieurs décident alors d'utiliser la pression des photons sur les panneaux solaires pour maintenir l'orientation de la sonde en limitant ainsi la quantité de carburant qui est nécessaire pour permettre aux propulseurs d'effectuer les corrections d'orientation nécessaires. À l'origine, Mariner 10 doit survoler Vénus et étudier son atmosphère (composition, structure, pression) et ses nuages, mais lors de la planification de sa trajectoire, les ingénieurs de la NASA se rendent compte qu'avec quelques ajustements, la sonde peut atteindre Mercure. Mariner 10 est le septième lancement réussi du programme Mariner. Le véhicule spatial vole trois fois vers Mercure sur une orbite héliocentrique rétrograde et restitue des images et des données sur la planète. Mariner 10 renvoie les toutes premières images en gros plan de Vénus et de Mercure. Les principaux objectifs scientifiques de la mission sont de mesurer les caractéristiques de l’environnement, de l’atmosphère, de la surface et du centre de la planète Mercure et de mener des recherches similaires sur Vénus. Les objectifs secondaires sont de réaliser des expériences dans le milieu interplanétaire et d'acquérir de l'expérience dans le cadre d'une mission d'assistance gravitationnelle sur deux planètes.
AA Aa
Size
1.50 vw
Leading
1.40
Tracking
0.000 %
Sonda odstartovala 3. listopadu 1973 z Cape Canaveral na Floridě směrem k Venuši. Během prvního týdne letu Mariner 10 ověřil funkci své kamery získáním 5 snímků Země a 6 snímků Měsíce. Byly tak získány fotografie severní polární oblasti Měsíce, kde bylo dřívější zmapování velmi skromné. Kartografové tak mohli zaktualizovat měsíční mapy a zlepšilo se tak zmapování Měsíce. První korekce dráhy proběhla 13. listopadu 1973. Při jejím průběhu ztratila sonda orientaci. Čidlo zajišťující správnou orientaci se zaměřilo místo na hvězdu Canopus na světlo, které vycházelo z trysek motoru. Program řídící let automaticky znovu orientační hvězdu nalezl, ale tento problém se zaměřením se opakoval po celou misi. Palubní počítač se také občas restartoval, což vždy přenastavilo palubní hodiny a subsystémy sondy. Během části letu k Venuši nastaly také pravidelné problémy s vysokovýkonnou anténou. V lednu 1974 provedl Mariner 10 pozorování komety Kohoutek v ultrafialovém spektru. Další úprava dráhy proběhla 21. ledna 1974. Při průletu kolem Venuše sonda fotografovala v ultrafialovém spektru oblaka Venuše (vyslala 2400 snímků) a provedla další zkoumání atmosféry a potom zamířila k Merkuru. První přiblížení k této planetě nastalo 29. března 1974 ve 20:47 UT na vzdálenost 703 kilometrů. Po obletu sondy kolem Slunce (Merkur za tuto dobu dokončil dva oběhy) se sonda 21. října 1974 znovu přiblížila k planetě a to na vzdálenost 48 069 km. Třetí a poslední přiblížení k Merkuru nastalo 16. března 1975 na vzdálenost 327 km.
AA Aa
Size
3.60 vw
Leading
1.15
Tracking
-0.015 %
Columbia was named after the American sloop Columbia Rediviva which, from 1787 to 1793, under the command of Captain Robert Gray, explored the US Pacific Northwest and became the first American vessel to circumnavigate the globe. It is also named after the command module of Apollo 11, the first crewed landing on another celestial body. Columbia was also the female symbol of the United States. After construction, the orbiter arrived at Kennedy Space Center on March 25, 1979, to prepare for its first launch. Columbia was originally scheduled to lift off in late 1979, however the launch date was delayed by problems with both the RS-25 engine, as well as the thermal protection system. The first flight of Columbia was commanded by John Young, a veteran from the Gemini and Apollo programs who was the ninth person to walk on the Moon in 1972, and piloted by Robert Crippen, a rookie astronaut originally selected to fly on the military's Manned Orbital Laboratory spacecraft, but transferred to NASA after its cancellation, and served as a support crew member for the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions. Columbia spent 610 days in the Orbiter Processing Facility, another 35 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building, and 105 days on Pad 39A before finally lifting off. It was successfully launched on April 12, 1981, the 20th anniversary of the first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), and returned on April 14, 1981, after orbiting the Earth 36 times, landing on the dry lakebed runway at Edwards Air Force Base in California. It then undertook three further research missions to test its technical characteristics and performance. Its first operational mission, with a four-man crew, launched on November 11, 1982. At this point Columbia was joined by Challenger, which flew the next three shuttle missions, while Columbia underwent modifications for the first Spacelab mission. In 1983, Columbia, under the command of John Young on what was his sixth spaceflight, undertook its second operational mission, in which the Spacelab science laboratory and a six-person crew was carried, including the first non-American astronaut on a space shuttle, Ulf Merbold. After the flight, it spent 18 months at the Rockwell Palmdale facility beginning in January 1984, undergoing modifications that removed the Orbiter Flight Test hardware and updating it to similar specifications as those of its sister orbiters.

FK Grotesk represents a rigid typeface with a mechanical appearance, suitable for both small text and large headlines. Subtle ink traps and sharp corners provide distinctive and eye-catching detail at large point sizes.

The first version of FK Grotesk dates back to 2014. The typeface was persistently tested in various projects since then, and in 2018 eventually released as a first-ever FK typeface. Completely redrawn in 2021, it now ranges from thin to black weight and corresponding italic, semi-mono and mono styles (also available as a three-axis variable font).

FK Grotesk supports Latin Extended-A character set (i.e. Western European, Central European and Southeastern European languages) as well as Vietnamese language and several OpenType features. For complete specs see typeface specimen.

FK Grotesk 2.0 is still available upon request. Please, get in touch.

  • Designer

    Florian Karsten

  • Release date

    January 2018

  • Version

    3.0.0 (April 2021)

  • Formats

    Static (OTF, TTF, WOFF, WOFF2), Variable (TTF, WOFF, WOFF2)

  • Glyphs

    950

  • OpenType features

    Standard Ligatures, Case Sensitive Forms, Fractions, Numerators, Denominators, Scientific Inferiors, Superscript, Subscript, Oldstyle Figures, Lining Figures, Proportional Figures, Tabular Figures, Slashed Zero, Stylistic Sets (SS01–SS08)

  • Language support

    Afrikaans, Albanian, Asturian, Azerbaijani, Basque, Bemba, Bosnian, Breton, Catalan, Cornish, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Estonian, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino, Finnish, French, Frisian, Friulian, Galician, Ganda, German, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Kinyarwanda, Klingon, Latvian, Lithuanian, Luxembourgish, Makhuwa, Maltese, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh, Sango, Scottish Gaelic, Serbian, Shona, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish, Swiss German, Turkish, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Welsh, Zarma, Zulu

  • Licensing

    A basic license purchased via this website combines desktop and web license and covers installation on a given number of workstations within one organisation and allows you to self-host webfont files for a single domain with no time limitation for a given number of unique visitors per month. For more information about other licensing options, please check FAQ or get in touch.

Buy FK Grotesk

Basic desktop + web license (up to 3 CPU, single domain up to 10k visitors/month)
For more information about other licensing options please check FAQ or get in touch.

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