Florian Karsten Typefaces

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Variable Static
Weight
500
Italic
0
Leading
1.00
Tracking
0.000 %
AA Aa
Ligatures Case forms Tabular figures Oldstyle figures Slashed zero MORE
AA Aa
Size
3.20 vw
Leading
1.05
Tracking
-0.020 %
Columbia was named after the American sloop Columbia Rediviva which, from 1787 to 1793, under the command of Captain Robert Gray, explored the US Pacific Northwest and became the first American vessel to circumnavigate the globe. It is also named after the command module of Apollo 11, the first crewed landing on another celestial body. Columbia was also the female symbol of the United States. After construction, the orbiter arrived at Kennedy Space Center on March 25, 1979, to prepare for its first launch. Columbia was originally scheduled to lift off in late 1979, however the launch date was delayed by problems with both the RS-25 engine, as well as the thermal protection system. The first flight of Columbia was commanded by John Young, a veteran from the Gemini and Apollo programs who was the ninth person to walk on the Moon in 1972, and piloted by Robert Crippen, a rookie astronaut originally selected to fly on the military's Manned Orbital Laboratory spacecraft, but transferred to NASA after its cancellation, and served as a support crew member for the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions. Columbia spent 610 days in the Orbiter Processing Facility, another 35 days in the Vehicle Assembly Building, and 105 days on Pad 39A before finally lifting off. It was successfully launched on April 12, 1981, the 20th anniversary of the first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), and returned on April 14, 1981, after orbiting the Earth 36 times, landing on the dry lakebed runway at Edwards Air Force Base in California. It then undertook three further research missions to test its technical characteristics and performance. Its first operational mission, with a four-man crew, launched on November 11, 1982. At this point Columbia was joined by Challenger, which flew the next three shuttle missions, while Columbia underwent modifications for the first Spacelab mission. In 1983, Columbia, under the command of John Young on what was his sixth spaceflight, undertook its second operational mission, in which the Spacelab science laboratory and a six-person crew was carried, including the first non-American astronaut on a space shuttle, Ulf Merbold. After the flight, it spent 18 months at the Rockwell Palmdale facility beginning in January 1984, undergoing modifications that removed the Orbiter Flight Test hardware and updating it to similar specifications as those of its sister orbiters.
AA Aa
Size
1.60 vw
Leading
1.37
Tracking
0.000 %
Een van de redenen voor het gebruik van de naam Pioneer lag in het feit dat deze vlucht bedoeld was om de weg te effenen voor zwaardere verkenners. De constructeurs wisten niet goed wat de ideale vormgeving voor zo'n sonde moest zijn, doordat er tot die tijd slechts zeer weinig bekend was over de stralingsgordels van de buitenplaneten en de intensiteit van micrometeorieten. De Pioneer 10 en 11 moesten hieromtrent duidelijkheid verschaffen. Beide sondes voerden camera's mee, maar het maken van opnames was niet het belangrijkste missiedoel. De vaartuigen beschikten over sensors die magnetische velden, geladen deeltjes en samenstelling en temperatuur van Jupiter vastlegden. De verzonden foto's waren een bijproduct van metingen door een polarimeter, ontworpen door de Nederlandse hoogleraar Tom Gehrels van de Universiteit van Arizona. Overigens zouden verreweg de meeste toekomstige plannen vroegtijdig sneuvelen op de tekentafel: door voortdurende bezuinigingen moest NASA in de jaren na Pioneer 10 keuzes maken. Hun voortdurend door uitstel en budgetoverschrijdingen geplaagde paradepaardje Space Shuttle slokte het leeuwendeel van de beschikbare fondsen op en na Voyager 1 en 2 maakte NASA noodgedwongen pas op de plaats. Voor communicatie met de vluchtleiding op Aarde beschikte de sonde over drie antennes: een hooggevoelige schotelantenne met een diepte van 46 cm en een diameter van 2,74 m en daarnaast een middelgevoelige antenne op de schotelantenne en een laaggevoelige antenne die 76 cm van het deel met de vluchtinstrumenten uitstak en onder de schotelantenne was bevestigd. Van de twee ontvangers was er een aangesloten op zowel de laag- als middelgevoelige antenne, de andere was gereserveerd voor de schotelantenne. De vluchtleiding kon deze omwisselen. Twee zenders met versterkers van 8 watt op 2292 MHz zonden gegevens naar de Aarde, inkomende signalen kwamen binnen op 2110 MHz. De bitrate bedroeg op weg naar Jupiter 2048 bps en aan het einde van de missie slechts 16 bps. Op 750 miljoen km doet een radiosignaal er zo'n 40 minuten over om deze afstand te overbruggen.
AA Aa
Size
7.75 vw
Leading
1.05
Tracking
-0.035 %
En effet, Voyager 2 devait tourner sur elle-même à 360° afin de prendre diverses mesures.
AA Aa
Size
1.90 vw
Leading
1.35
Tracking
-0.005 %
Le système de contrôle d'attitude de la sonde a une défaillance en cours de mission. Les ingénieurs décident alors d'utiliser la pression des photons sur les panneaux solaires pour maintenir l'orientation de la sonde en limitant ainsi la quantité de carburant qui est nécessaire pour permettre aux propulseurs d'effectuer les corrections d'orientation nécessaires. À l'origine, Mariner 10 doit survoler Vénus et étudier son atmosphère (composition, structure, pression) et ses nuages, mais lors de la planification de sa trajectoire, les ingénieurs de la NASA se rendent compte qu'avec quelques ajustements, la sonde peut atteindre Mercure. Mariner 10 est le septième lancement réussi du programme Mariner. Le véhicule spatial vole trois fois vers Mercure sur une orbite héliocentrique rétrograde et restitue des images et des données sur la planète. Mariner 10 renvoie les toutes premières images en gros plan de Vénus et de Mercure. Les principaux objectifs scientifiques de la mission sont de mesurer les caractéristiques de l’environnement, de l’atmosphère, de la surface et du centre de la planète Mercure et de mener des recherches similaires sur Vénus. Les objectifs secondaires sont de réaliser des expériences dans le milieu interplanétaire et d'acquérir de l'expérience dans le cadre d'une mission d'assistance gravitationnelle sur deux planètes.
AA Aa
Size
2.15 vw
Leading
1.22
Tracking
-0.010 %
Mariner 10 was the first spacecraft to make use of an interplanetary gravitational slingshot maneuver, using Venus to bend its flight path and bring its perihelion down to the level of Mercury's orbit. This maneuver, inspired by the orbital mechanics calculations of the Italian scientist Giuseppe Colombo, put the spacecraft into an orbit that repeatedly brought it back to Mercury. Mariner 10 used the solar radiation pressure on its solar panels and its high-gain antenna as a means of attitude control during flight, the first spacecraft to use active solar pressure control. The components on Mariner 10 can be categorized into four groups based on their common function. The solar panels, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, and the computer kept the spacecraft operating properly during the flight. The navigational system, including the hydrazine rocket, would keep Mariner 10 on track to Venus and Mercury. Several scientific instruments would collect data at the two planets. Finally, the antennas would transmit this data to the Deep Space Network back on Earth, as well as receive commands from Mission Control. Mariner 10's various components and scientific instruments were attached to a central hub, which was roughly the shape of an octagonal prism. The hub stored the spacecraft's internal electronics. The Mariner 10 spacecraft was manufactured by Boeing. NASA set a strict limit of US$98 million for Mariner 10's total cost, which marked the first time the agency subjected a mission to an inflexible budget constraint. No overruns would be tolerated, so mission planners carefully considered cost efficiency when designing the spacecraft's instruments. Cost control was primarily accomplished by executing contract work closer to the launch date than was recommended by normal mission schedules, as reducing the length of available work time increased cost efficiency. Despite the rushed schedule, very few deadlines were missed. The mission ended up about US$1 million under budget.
AA Aa
Size
2.95 vw
Leading
1.20
Tracking
-0.020 %
Dzięki wykorzystaniu manewrów asysty grawitacyjnej podczas mijania planet, czas przelotu do Neptuna lub Plutona zostałby przy tym skrócony o około 20 lat w stosunku do lotu bezpośredniego. NASA początkowo planowała zrealizować projekt Grand Tour (Wielka Wyprawa), który przewidywał skonstruowanie czterech sond. Pierwsze dwie sondy wystrzelone w 1977 roku przeleciałyby kolejno obok Jowisza, Saturna i Plutona. Druga para sond wystrzelona w 1979 roku zbliżyłaby się do Jowisza, Urana i Neptuna. Jednak koszt takiej misji, wynoszący około miliarda dolarów, przerósł ówczesne możliwości NASA. Nie zaniechano jednak badania zewnętrznych planet. Skromniejszy program zaczęto realizować w 1972 roku. Początkowo miał on być kontynuacją programu Mariner (loty 11 i 12, określane też jako program Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977). W marcu 1977 roku nazwę zmieniono na program Voyager. Celem misji miał być Jowisz i Saturn, jednak zachowano możliwość skierowania jednej z sond do wszystkich czterech planet olbrzymów. Sondy zostały zbudowane w Jet Propulsion Laboratory w Pasadenie. Do każdej z nich został dołączony Voyager Golden Record, na którym zapisane są pozdrowienia wypowiadane w 55 językach, muzyka oraz dźwięki i obrazy przedstawiające różnorodność życia i kultury na Ziemi.

FK Grotesk Neue is a down-to-earth sans-serif typeface inspired by swiss typography titans Helvetica and Univers.

Despite clear references to the iconic shapes of the flowing lowercase “a” or the uppercase “R”, FK Grotesk Neue represents a contemporary, more mechanic and rigid approach to the neo-grotesque genre. Lower contrast, rather geometric outlines and wider proportions (courtesy of FK Grotesk) make the typeface a unique addition to the large group of common-looking utilitarian typefaces.

FK Grotesk Neue fully utilises OpenType features, including several stylistic alternates, thin punctuation set and wide range of numerals variants. FK Grotesk Neue supports Latin Extended-A character set (i.e. Western European, Central European and Southeastern European languages) as well as Vietnamese language. For complete specs see typeface specimen.

  • Designer

    Květoslav Bartoš

  • Publisher

    Florian Karsten Typefaces

  • Release date

    May 2020

  • Version

    1.1.7 (January 2022)

  • Formats

    Static (OTF, TTF, WOFF, WOFF2), Variable (TTF, WOFF, WOFF2)

  • Glyphs

    732

  • OpenType features

    Standard Ligatures, Case Sensitive Forms, Fractions, Numerators, Denominators, Scientific Inferiors, Superscript, Subscript, Oldstyle Figures, Lining Figures, Proportional Figures, Tabular Figures, Slashed Zero, Stylistic Sets (SS01–SS05)

  • Language support

    Afrikaans, Albanian, Asturian, Azerbaijani, Basque, Bemba, Bosnian, Breton, Catalan, Cornish, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Estonian, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino, Finnish, French, Frisian, Friulian, Galician, Ganda, German, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Kinyarwanda, Klingon, Latvian, Lithuanian, Luxembourgish, Makhuwa, Maltese, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh, Sango, Scottish Gaelic, Serbian, Shona, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish, Swiss German, Turkish, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Welsh, Zarma, Zulu

  • Licensing

    A basic license purchased via this website combines desktop and web license and covers installation on a given number of workstations within one organisation and allows you to self-host webfont files for a single domain with no time limitation for a given number of unique visitors per month. For more information about other licensing options, please check FAQ or get in touch.

Buy FK Grotesk Neue

Basic desktop + web license (up to 3 CPU, single domain up to 10k visitors/month)
For more information about other licensing options please check FAQ or get in touch.

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