Florian Karsten Typefaces

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Variable Static
Weight
500
Italic
0
Leading
1.00
Tracking
0.000 %
AA Aa
Ligatures Case forms Tabular figures Oldstyle figures Slashed zero MORE
AA Aa
Size
3.20 vw
Leading
1.05
Tracking
-0.020 %
Mariner 10 was the first spacecraft to make use of an interplanetary gravitational slingshot maneuver, using Venus to bend its flight path and bring its perihelion down to the level of Mercury's orbit. This maneuver, inspired by the orbital mechanics calculations of the Italian scientist Giuseppe Colombo, put the spacecraft into an orbit that repeatedly brought it back to Mercury. Mariner 10 used the solar radiation pressure on its solar panels and its high-gain antenna as a means of attitude control during flight, the first spacecraft to use active solar pressure control. The components on Mariner 10 can be categorized into four groups based on their common function. The solar panels, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, and the computer kept the spacecraft operating properly during the flight. The navigational system, including the hydrazine rocket, would keep Mariner 10 on track to Venus and Mercury. Several scientific instruments would collect data at the two planets. Finally, the antennas would transmit this data to the Deep Space Network back on Earth, as well as receive commands from Mission Control. Mariner 10's various components and scientific instruments were attached to a central hub, which was roughly the shape of an octagonal prism. The hub stored the spacecraft's internal electronics. The Mariner 10 spacecraft was manufactured by Boeing. NASA set a strict limit of US$98 million for Mariner 10's total cost, which marked the first time the agency subjected a mission to an inflexible budget constraint. No overruns would be tolerated, so mission planners carefully considered cost efficiency when designing the spacecraft's instruments. Cost control was primarily accomplished by executing contract work closer to the launch date than was recommended by normal mission schedules, as reducing the length of available work time increased cost efficiency. Despite the rushed schedule, very few deadlines were missed. The mission ended up about US$1 million under budget.
AA Aa
Size
1.60 vw
Leading
1.37
Tracking
0.000 %
Rosetta was launched on 2 March 2004 from the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, on an Ariane 5 rocket and reached Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 7 May 2014. It performed a series of manoeuvres to enter orbit between then and 6 August 2014, when it became the first spacecraft to orbit a comet. (Previous missions had conducted successful flybys of seven other comets.) It was one of ESA's Horizon 2000 cornerstone missions. The spacecraft consisted of the Rosetta orbiter, which featured 12 instruments, and the Philae lander, with nine additional instruments. The Rosetta mission orbited Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko for 17 months and was designed to complete the most detailed study of a comet ever attempted. The spacecraft was controlled from the European Space Operations Centre, in Darmstadt, Germany. The planning for the operation of the scientific payload, together with the data retrieval, calibration, archiving and distribution, was performed from the European Space Astronomy Centre, in Villanueva de la Cañada, near Madrid, Spain. It has been estimated that in the decade preceding 2014, some 2,000 people assisted in the mission in some capacity. In 2007, Rosetta made a Mars gravity assist (flyby) on its way to Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The spacecraft also performed two asteroid flybys. The craft completed its flyby of asteroid 2867 Šteins in September 2008 and of 21 Lutetia in July 2010. Later, on 20 January 2014, Rosetta was taken out of a 31-month hibernation mode as it approached Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Rosetta's Philae lander successfully made the first soft landing on a comet nucleus when it touched down on Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. On 5 September 2016, ESA announced that the lander was discovered by the narrow-angle camera aboard Rosetta as the orbiter made a low, 2.7 km (1.7 mi) pass over the comet. The lander sits on its side wedged into a dark crevice of the comet, explaining the lack of electrical power to establish proper communication with the orbiter.
AA Aa
Size
7.75 vw
Leading
1.05
Tracking
-0.035 %
En effet, Voyager 2 devait tourner sur elle-même à 360° afin de prendre diverses mesures.
AA Aa
Size
1.90 vw
Leading
1.35
Tracking
-0.005 %
O objetivo é alcançar resultados de qualidade através de várias missões pequenas, usando menos recursos e menos tempo. Os objetos do programa são por conseguinte variados, explorando os planetas, suas luas e pequenos corpos como cometas e asteroides. Cada experimento individual é coordenado por um investigador principal, que desenvolve os objetivos científicos e os instrumentos necessários. O IP é responsável por assegurar que o custo, cronograma e os objetivos de desempenho sejam cumpridos. O programa procura manter um alto desempenho a baixo custo, no máximo 425 milhões de dólares. Nisto deve ser incluído o custo de toda a missão: concepção, desenvolvimento, veículos de lançamento, instrumentos e aparelhos espaciais, lançamento, operações de missão, análise de dados, educação e divulgação pública. O tempo de desenvolvimento da missão do começo ao lançamento pode ser no máximo 36 meses, lançando-se em tese uma missão a cada 12 a 24 meses. Discovery já lançou várias sondas, entre elas a NEAR Shoemaker, a Lunar Prospector, o Mars Pathfinder, a Deep Impact, a Stardust (sonda espacial) e a Genesis (sonda espacial). Ainda estão em andamento as missões Messenger, Dawn e Kepler. O Mars Pathfinder, mais tarde rebatizado como Carl Sagan Memorial Station, foi lançado no dia 4 de dezembro de 1996, apenas um mês após o lançamento do Mars Global Surveyor. A bordo do lander (aterrissador) seguia um pequeno rover (veículo explorador) chamado Sojourner, que executou muitas experiências na superfície marciana. Foi o segundo projeto do Programa Discovery. Esta missão foi a mais importante desde o programa Viking, e também a primeira missão bem-sucedida a enviar um rover a outro planeta. Para além dos objetivos científicos, a missão Mars Pathfinder foi também um teste para várias novas tecnologias, tais como o airbag para pouso e o contorno automatizado de obstáculos, ambos mais tarde aproveitados pelo Mars Exploration Rover.
AA Aa
Size
2.15 vw
Leading
1.22
Tracking
-0.010 %
Le système de contrôle d'attitude de la sonde a une défaillance en cours de mission. Les ingénieurs décident alors d'utiliser la pression des photons sur les panneaux solaires pour maintenir l'orientation de la sonde en limitant ainsi la quantité de carburant qui est nécessaire pour permettre aux propulseurs d'effectuer les corrections d'orientation nécessaires. À l'origine, Mariner 10 doit survoler Vénus et étudier son atmosphère (composition, structure, pression) et ses nuages, mais lors de la planification de sa trajectoire, les ingénieurs de la NASA se rendent compte qu'avec quelques ajustements, la sonde peut atteindre Mercure. Mariner 10 est le septième lancement réussi du programme Mariner. Le véhicule spatial vole trois fois vers Mercure sur une orbite héliocentrique rétrograde et restitue des images et des données sur la planète. Mariner 10 renvoie les toutes premières images en gros plan de Vénus et de Mercure. Les principaux objectifs scientifiques de la mission sont de mesurer les caractéristiques de l’environnement, de l’atmosphère, de la surface et du centre de la planète Mercure et de mener des recherches similaires sur Vénus. Les objectifs secondaires sont de réaliser des expériences dans le milieu interplanétaire et d'acquérir de l'expérience dans le cadre d'une mission d'assistance gravitationnelle sur deux planètes.
AA Aa
Size
2.95 vw
Leading
1.20
Tracking
-0.020 %
Sonda odstartovala 3. listopadu 1973 z Cape Canaveral na Floridě směrem k Venuši. Během prvního týdne letu Mariner 10 ověřil funkci své kamery získáním 5 snímků Země a 6 snímků Měsíce. Byly tak získány fotografie severní polární oblasti Měsíce, kde bylo dřívější zmapování velmi skromné. Kartografové tak mohli zaktualizovat měsíční mapy a zlepšilo se tak zmapování Měsíce. První korekce dráhy proběhla 13. listopadu 1973. Při jejím průběhu ztratila sonda orientaci. Čidlo zajišťující správnou orientaci se zaměřilo místo na hvězdu Canopus na světlo, které vycházelo z trysek motoru. Program řídící let automaticky znovu orientační hvězdu nalezl, ale tento problém se zaměřením se opakoval po celou misi. Palubní počítač se také občas restartoval, což vždy přenastavilo palubní hodiny a subsystémy sondy. Během části letu k Venuši nastaly také pravidelné problémy s vysokovýkonnou anténou. V lednu 1974 provedl Mariner 10 pozorování komety Kohoutek v ultrafialovém spektru. Další úprava dráhy proběhla 21. ledna 1974. Při průletu kolem Venuše sonda fotografovala v ultrafialovém spektru oblaka Venuše (vyslala 2400 snímků) a provedla další zkoumání atmosféry a potom zamířila k Merkuru. První přiblížení k této planetě nastalo 29. března 1974 ve 20:47 UT na vzdálenost 703 kilometrů. Po obletu sondy kolem Slunce (Merkur za tuto dobu dokončil dva oběhy) se sonda 21. října 1974 znovu přiblížila k planetě a to na vzdálenost 48 069 km. Třetí a poslední přiblížení k Merkuru nastalo 16. března 1975 na vzdálenost 327 km.

FK Grotesk Neue is a down-to-earth sans-serif typeface inspired by swiss typography titans Helvetica and Univers.

Despite clear references to the iconic shapes of the flowing lowercase “a” or the uppercase “R”, FK Grotesk Neue represents a contemporary, more mechanic and rigid approach to the neo-grotesque genre. Lower contrast, rather geometric outlines and wider proportions (courtesy of FK Grotesk) make the typeface a unique addition to the large group of common-looking utilitarian typefaces.

FK Grotesk Neue fully utilises OpenType features, including several stylistic alternates, thin punctuation set and wide range of numerals variants. FK Grotesk Neue supports Latin Extended-A character set (i.e. Western European, Central European and Southeastern European languages) as well as Vietnamese language. For complete specs see typeface specimen.

  • Designer

    Květoslav Bartoš

  • Publisher

    Florian Karsten Typefaces

  • Release date

    May 2020

  • Version

    1.1.6 (April 2021)

  • Formats

    Static (OTF, TTF, WOFF, WOFF2), Variable (TTF, WOFF, WOFF2)

  • Glyphs

    732

  • OpenType features

    Standard Ligatures, Case Sensitive Forms, Fractions, Numerators, Denominators, Scientific Inferiors, Superscript, Subscript, Oldstyle Figures, Lining Figures, Proportional Figures, Tabular Figures, Slashed Zero, Stylistic Sets (SS01–SS05)

  • Language support

    Afrikaans, Albanian, Asturian, Azerbaijani, Basque, Bemba, Bosnian, Breton, Catalan, Cornish, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Estonian, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino, Finnish, French, Frisian, Friulian, Galician, Ganda, German, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Kinyarwanda, Klingon, Latvian, Lithuanian, Luxembourgish, Makhuwa, Maltese, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh, Sango, Scottish Gaelic, Serbian, Shona, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish, Swiss German, Turkish, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Welsh, Zarma, Zulu

  • Licensing

    A basic license purchased via this website combines desktop and web license and covers installation on a given number of workstations within one organisation and allows you to self-host webfont files for a single domain with no time limitation for a given number of unique visitors per month. For more information about other licensing options, please check FAQ or get in touch.

Buy FK Grotesk Neue

Basic desktop + web license (up to 3 CPU, single domain up to 10k visitors/month)
For more information about other licensing options please check FAQ or get in touch.

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